各位同學好:

        2007年暑假,由鄭勝耀老師所帶領的博碩生學術交流團隊,
        一起到美國楊百漢大學與UCLA取經,進行了一個月半的學術之旅。
        以下是其中一位課程所博士班學生在學習撰寫英文學術論文時
        記錄下James Jacob老師的上課筆記,與大家分享。
      

克麗克倫小姐 感謝您
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版主大大及各位版友好:
                                                                               
   很抱歉答應版主分享心得一拖到現在(最近好忙好忙.修稿子還真磨人耐性..呼)
   我研究的領域是教育(人文社會科學),感覺跟上述各位大大分享的科學英文
   寫作方式差距不小。以下是近三個月來寫稿子的經驗分享:
                                                                               
    Outline:
                                                                               
     若以一篇規定20頁double space的英文paper而言,可大略區分如下:
                                                                               
      Abstract (literature review / method you used / summary of the body)
                                                                               
      A:  Introduction (background / literature review/ thesis statement)
                                                                               
          篇幅:整篇paper的1/3 (5-7 pages)
                                                                               
      B:  Body (methods / findings / discussion)
                                                                               
          篇幅:整篇paper的1/3-1/2 (8-10 pages)
                                                                               
      C:  Conclusion
                                                                          
      D: Reference (2-4 pages)
                                                                               
         ps:篇幅僅是參考,仍須依據寫作主旨增減
                                                                               
                                                                               
     寫作順序:
                                                                               
     1.從Outline開始寫。這部分會一改再改,然而先把整個架構列出來,會比較清楚
       哪些部分該佔多少篇幅,不至於頭重腳輕,頭輕腳重。
                                                                               
                                                                               
     2.寫Introdction,順序為(1)研究背景、(2)文獻探討、(3)本文論點
                                                                               
       以教育論文來說,寫作者可能會著墨過多於literview review,如某某學者的
       理論整理一不小心就整理了快10頁,像寫教科書。文獻整理精簡就好,讀者要
       看得是作者的「見解或批判」。
                                                                               
       不過若文章主旨就是要論XX學者於XXX之探討。文獻探討的篇幅自然要增多。
                                                                               
       最重要的是本文論點(thesis statement)需在Introduction就開宗明義點出,
       顯示出這篇論文的重要性與閱讀價值。
       Ex: In this paper, I aruge that......
             My statemtent is......
                                                                               
                                                                               
     3.寫Body,包括(1)研究方法、(2)研究發現、(3)分析討問(包括啟示)
                                                                               
       曾與教授討論過研究方法的篇幅,以教育哲學的論文來說,研究方法其實不太寫
       的。但若是採質性或量化研究,研究方法自然要交代清楚。
                                                                               
       ps:最好是看徵稿單位的要求,看該單位注不注重研究法之陳述。
                                                                               
                                                                               
     4.寫Conclusion
                                                                               
       結論再重述本文論點(restate the thesis statement)。
       通常是整篇文章的「重點摘要」,不另外再加新的觀點或建議。
                                                                               
       ps:這部分至今還擠不出來...有點痛苦>_<
                                                                               
                                                                               
      至於Abstract何時寫,見仁見智。以往我是在整篇文章完成後才寫,
      這次因為徵搞要求先交Abstract,文章還沒出來就要先寫Abstract了
      所以就硬把分析討論與可能啟示先擠出來。看各位大大的寫作習慣嚕!
                                                                               
                                                                               
     請益部分:
                                                                               
     1.請英文母語人士幫忙修改文法
                                                                               
      文章完成後,最好可以找一位以英文為母語的朋友幫你修改文法。
      我的文章從初稿到第四稿請美國朋友改了兩次,兩次都滿江紅。
      因為我的台式英文對英文母語人士而言,有閱讀困難 =,=
                                                                               
     2.請同儕閱讀
                                                                               
      專業部分就要請教授多多指導了。但有時候教授因為很專業,即使自己寫
      的不清楚他也知道你要講什麼。我習慣寫完後,會找一位至二位「同儕」
      閱讀一次全文。如果他有看不懂的地方,那就表示我寫的不夠清楚。
      有時候發現同儕給的意見真得很不錯喔!
                                                                               
                                                                               
    建議閱讀書籍:
                                                                               
     推薦一本蠻不錯的人文社會科學寫作論文書籍:
                                                                            
     Huff, Anne Sigismund. (1999).  Writing for Scholarly Publication.
     Thousabd Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
                                                                               
     該書每一章節的寫作方式就已經讓讀者在閱讀文本時能夠理解,就是這樣寫!
     文字精簡又容易懂,很不錯喔!
                                                                               
                                                                               
    延伸討論:
                                                                               
      在寫作過程中,有許多環節都令人感到困惑。例如
                                                                               
      1.引用文獻:全文引用或部分引用,該如何寫釋義(rephrase)才不算抄襲?
                                                                               
      2.觀點論述:事實上英文寫作不喜歡「不確定的語句」,或一些「口語用法」。
                                                                               
        例如:good,well, I want to..這些字句全部被教授改掉了..orz..
                                                                                                                                                              
      ps:這些小環節的修改真得很需要耐心..
             
    心得:
                                                                               
      其實我也是第一次撰寫人文社會領域的英文paper。很高興這一路上有教授
      細心指導。光Abstract就修改5次以上,內文更不用說了。修稿子很花心思,
      也挺需要耐心的~呼! 謝謝各位大大耐心看完,希望可以有些許幫助。
                                                                               
      祝大家英文寫作越來越進步,文思不絕,寫作順順順 ^__^
                         
Winni Chan                                     
                               
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